Objective: Identifying study-eligible patients within clinical databases is a critical step in clinical research. However, accurate query design typically requires extensive technical and biomedical expertise. We sought to create a system capable of generating data model-agnostic queries while also providing novel logical reasoning capabilities for complex clinical trial eligibility criteria.
Materials and Methods: The task of query creation from eligibility criteria requires solving several textprocessing problems, including named entity recognition and relation extraction, sequence-to-sequence transformation, normalization, and reasoning. We incorporated hybrid deep learning and rule-based modules for these, as well as a knowledge base of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and linked ontologies. To enable data-model agnostic query creation, we introduce a novel method for tagging database schema elements using UMLS concepts. To evaluate our system, called LeafAI, we compared the capability of LeafAI to a human database programmer to identify patients who had been enrolled in 8 clinical trials conducted at our institution. We measured performance by the number of actual enrolled patients matched by generated queries.
Results: LeafAI matched a mean 43% of enrolled patients with 27,225 eligible across 8 clinical trials, compared to 27% matched and 14,587 eligible in queries by a human database programmer. The human programmer spent 26 total hours crafting queries compared to several minutes by LeafAI.
Conclusions: Our work contributes a state-of-the-art data model-agnostic query generation system capable of conditional reasoning using a knowledge base. We demonstrate that LeafAI can rival a human programmer in finding patients eligible for clinical trials.
Keywords: clinical trials, natural language processing, machine learning, electronic health records, cohort definitionApril 13th, 2023 by Bin Han